G L O S S A R Y
Adam: First prophet in the earth.
Adhan: To call muslims to salat/namaz(prayer). It is obligatory for 5 times in a day and night.
a desert or semi-arid environment.
the first full military confrontation between the Muslims and the enemies of Allah. The battle took place between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca in the second year of Hijrah (624 CE). Eventhough the Muslims were outnumbered, the final result was to their favor.
means weepers. These were the people that could not accompany the Prophet on his campaign to Tabuk because they lacked the resources to do so. They started to weep when they could not go.
the cemetery where a good many of the sahaba are buried. It is in the south-east side of Madinah.
means blessing or Divine Grace.
means false of falsehood.
means ascetic. It is ascribed to Fatimah (the Prophets daughter) and the Virgin Mary.
plural form of badiyyah.
it is an oath of allegiance. To make a pledge.
the State Treasury in an Islamic State.
In the name of Allah (God).
the beginning of the Prophet's mission, his call to Prophethood in 610 C.E..
means partially ripe dates.
stands for Christian Era. It is used instead of A.D. in Islamic text referring to the dates before the Hijrah.
a solemn agreement between two or more persons or groups, a compact between God and man. The Old Testament tells of the covenant the Jews made with Allah.
tambourine used in Arabia.
Muslim missionary involved in da'wah. It can also have a general meaning reffering to someone who calls others to a certain belief.
going astray, deviation from what is right or normal.
inviting others to Islam. Missionary work.
remembrance for the sake of Allah.
a non-Muslim living under the protection of a Muslim state. He is exempt from duties of Islam like military and zakat but must instead pay a tax called jizyah.
it means 'Possessor of the Two Lights'. It is used to refer to Uthman ibn Affan because he married two of the Prophet's daughters.
means way of life or religion.
a silver coin.
plural of da'iy.
this world or life, as opposed to the Hereafer.
virtue, abstention from illegal sexual intercourse. Doing only sexual intercourse with their Wives/Husbands.
the obligatory salat, prayer, before sunrise.
a person who is an expert on Islamic jurisprudence (law), fiqh.
something which is obligatory on a Muslim. It is sometimes used in reference to the obligatory part of salat.
this was the name given to Uman ibn al-Khattab. It means 'One who distinguishes the truth from falsehood'.
legal opinion concerning Islamic Law.
means civil strife, war, riots.
plural form of faqih.
the reward God will give to his people after life according to their acts in life.
Muslim soldier, warrior.
the Hadith Qudsi are hadith's in which the Prophet says the Allah says so and so. The meaning of the these hadith was revealed to the Prophet but he put them in his own words, unlike the Quran which is the word of Almighty Allah and the Prophet conveyed it exactly as it was revealed to him.
sayings of the Prophet.
Bashfulness especially for women, to feel timid, shy in presence of foreigners.
means effort. The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that is obligatory on every Muslim. It is one of the five pillars of Islam and takes place during the Islamic month of Zhul al-Hijjah. A Muslim must perform the Hajj at least once in his life. The exception to this is financial and health reasons.
something that is lawful and permitted in Islam.
a person who enjoys the protection of a tribe but does not belong to it by blood.
a group of students involved in the study of Islam.
people who during the time of jahiliyyah rejected the idolatry in their society. These people were in search for the true religion of Prophet Abraham.
something which is unlawful or prohibited in Islam.
a Haram is a sanctuary, a sacred territory. Mecca has been considered a Haram since the time of Abraham. All things within the limit of the Haram are protected and considered inviolable Madinah was also declared a Haram by the Prophet.
War or jihad.
Veil or Cover. This is the Islamic dress for Muslim women which cover the whole body except the foot and the hands.
means migration. The Hijrah refers to the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madinah. This journey took place in the twelfth year of his mission (622 CE). This is the beginning of the Muslim calendar. The word hijrah means to leave a place to seek sancturary or freedom from persecution or freedom of religion or any other purpose. Hijrah can also mean to leave a bad way of life for a good or more righteous way.
the limits ordained by Allah. This includes the punishment for crimes.
leader of the congregational prayer, salat, that the Muslims offer five times a day. It is sometimes used to refer to the head of an Islamic State.
faith and trust in Allah.
the revelations that were sent down during the time of Prophet Isa (Jesus). It is reffered to as the New Testament.
means establishing. It is similar to the adhan with the addition of a pharse that signifies that a compulsory prayer, fard, is about to begin.
the obligatory salat, prayer, after sunset later in the evening.
to seek Allah's forgiveness. It is something that must be done continuously in a Muslims life.
means ignorant. Jahiliyyah refers to the pre-Islamic era that existed in Arabia. It is a combination of views, ideas, and practices that totally defy and reject the guidance sent down by God through His Prophets.
this is a long loose fitting garment worn by the Arabs.
means to strive. This can be any kind of striving in the way of God which involves either spiritual or personal effort, material resources, or arms.
a tax paid by non-Muslims living in a Muslim State. Since the non-Muslims are exempt from military service and taxes imposed on Muslims, they must pay this tax to compensate. It guarentees them security and protection. If the State cannot protect those who paid jizyah, then the amount they paid is returned to them.
the first house of worship built for mankind. It was originally built by Adam and later on reconstructed by Abraham and Isma'il. It is a cubed shaped structure based in the city of Mecca to which all Muslims turn to in their five daily paryers.
a person who refuses to submit himself to Allah (God), a disbeliever in God.
in the begining it was a reference to the successor of the Prophet. Later on it began to take on the meaning of head of state for a Muslim nation.
to do something right, nice and meaningful for others. It could also mean the blessings and welfare God blessed us with.
nature, quality and character of someone.
a speech or sermon. It is sometimes used to refer to the sermon given during the Friday cogregational prayer.
plural form of kafir.
to show ungratefulness to Allah and not to believe in Him and His religion.
a chief goddess in the religion of the pre-Islamic Arabs during the days of jahiliyyah.
the first city-state that came under the banner of Islam. It is where the Prophet's masjid and grave are situated.
the military campaigns of the Prophet.
the obligatory salat, prayer, that is performed right after the sun sets over the horizon.
a dowry given by the man to the woman he is about to marry. It is part of the Muslim marriage contract. It can never be demanded back under any circumstances.
a mount near the Ka'bah that is referred to in the Quran as one of the symbols of Allah. It is in conjuction with safa.
a place of worship and salat. The life of the early Muslims used to revolve around the masjid. Meetings would be held there, discussions would take place there. It is called a 'mosque' in English.
a person of slave origin who does not have tribal protection. It is a word with dual meaning. It can mean either master or servant.
a form of address to a ruler implying protector.
a recess in the masjid that indicates the direction of salat.
a plain within the bounds of the haram of Mecca, within five kilometers outside the city. During the hajj the pilgrims pass the night between the eighth and ninth day proceed to Arafat on the ninth day.
the person who calls the adhan.
a person who does hijrah.
someone who is active and fights for Islam. A Muslim fighter. The opposite of qaideen.
a person who has deep faith in Allah and is a righteous and obedient servant of His.
a hypocrite, more dangerous and worse than a kafir.
a person who is on the road spreading Islam.
a weak and oppressed person.
a copy of the Quran.
a polythiest. A person who ascribes partners to Allah.
Prophet, someone God had selected to inform people of the Islamic religion and all of its duties.
Fire or hell.
means lineage or geneology.
means sincere good advice.
the feeling of satisfaction and happiness the Muslim person gets by his/her acts in life as if they see everything bright and clear without glooms.
people who remain inactive and do not actively fight. The opposit of mujahid.
a loan given for a good cause in the name of Allah, in hopes of repayment or reward in the Hereafter.
someone who recites the Quran.
it is the direction that Muslims face when they do their salat. It is in the direction of the Ka'bah in Mecca.
retaliation in kind (eye for an eye). In Islam though, retaliation should be forgone as an act of charity sura 5, ayah 48.
Day of Judgement, resurrection.
plural form of qadi.
the most powerful and prominent tribe in all of Arabia in the Prophet's era. The Quraysh were the keepers of the Ka'bah and therefore one of the wealthiest and most powerful tribes. The Prophet was from among the Quraysh. When he started to preach the True religion of Allah, the Quraysh violently persecuted him and his followers. They were badly defeated at the battle of Badr by the Muslims and their days of jahiliyyah were finally ended when the Muslims liberated Mecca and destroyed all the idols in the Ka'bah in the year 630 CE
tenderness, deep sympathy, kindness and compassion God blesses people with.
an individual unit of salat.
the holy month of prescribed fasting for the Muslims. It was during this month that the Quranic revelations began.
the Messenger of Allah (God).
the position in salat in which the person prostrates himself in a standing position with his body bent forward at the waist and his hands on his knees.
ripe dates, opposite busr.
people who are patient and steadfast.
same meaning as mahr.
the person who fasts.
a mound near the Ka'bah that is referred to in the Quran as one of the symbols of Allah. It is in conjuction with marwah.
companions of the Prophet.
a page or manuscript.
the five obligatory prayers that a Muslim must perform everyday.
a shelter with a roof. The companions of the Prophet met in a Saqifah in Madinah to pledge their loyalty to Abu Bakr after the death of the Prophet.
protection and guarding against being shameful and un honorable.
the going back and forth seven times between safa and marwah that is done during the hajj or the umrah. It is done to symbolize Hajar's search for water for her son Ismael.
leader or chief.
biography of the Prophet.
declaration of faith. A person must recite the shahadah to convert to Islam. The shahadah in Islam is:: "I testify that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
a martyr. Someone who dies in the way of Allah.
means a witness or martyr.
associating partners with Allah. Shirk can also encompase any object that a person may hold in regard higher than Allah. It is the most severe of sins and will not be forgiven.
Plural of conditions
long under garment worn by the Arabs.
a piece of a branch or root of a tree that is used as a toothbrush. Also called a miswak.
Fasting such that to stop eating, drinking or doing sexual activity from the rising of the sun and till its setting.
glory be to Allah. A sentence that has to be said by all Muslims, declaring the magnificent power of God for his creation.
a raised platform that was used by the Prophet as a welcomming point for newcomers or destitute people. It was part of his masjid.
pages or manuscripts.
the position in salat in which the person prostrates on the ground with his hands, knees, feet, and face touching the ground.
the examples of the Prophet's life what he said, did, implemented, how he implemented... Almost the same as the hadith.
a chapter in the Quran.
Obedience and submission, compliance to God's orders without arguing.
women display their charms, to primp.
the Tahajjud prayer is an optional prayer that is supposed to be performed in the middle of the night. It is required that a person sleep a little before he gets up for the Tahajjud prayer. It can be performed anytime between Isha and Fajr.
The act of being clean, pure and performing the Wudu(Ablution)
the love and fear that a Muslim feels for Allah. A person with taqwa desires to be in the good pleasures of Allah and to stay away from those things that would displease Allah. He is careful not to go beyond the bouds and limits set by Allah.
legislation, law making. What God had permitted and what is forbidden.
confirming the Oneness of Allah. It is the basis of Islam.
the circumfering of the Ka'bah seven times. People usually do this during umrah or hajj.
reward of blessing.
the Revelation that Allah sent down to Moses. It is the Jewish Holy Book
the learned, knowledgeble people in Islam. Plural form of alim.
means 'Mother of the Believers'. This was the title of the Prophet's wives; (sura 33 ayah 6 stipulated that they could not marry after the Prophet's death because all of the believers were their spiritual children.
an ummah is a community or a people. It is used in reference to the community of Believers or Muslims.
this is the lesser pilgrimage which is optional and can be performed at any time.
the official language of Pakistan.
a chief goddess in the religion of the pre-Islamic Arabs during the days of jahiliyyah.
a person who is an authorized repesentative or proxy.
legal guardian. A friend or protector. Someone who is supposed to look out for your interest.
a feast after the wedding. The reception.
a purification (abulution) that must be performed before someone does their salat or reads the Quran.
the area where the city of Madinah is situated.
the obligatory tax that every Muslim must give. It is one of the five pillars of Islam. The zakat is used to provide for the poor and destitute.
ornament, decoration. To wear or put on something that makes women more beautiful, thus attracting men's attention.
the obligatory salat, prayer, that is performed in the afternoon right after the sun moves away from it's zenith.